Reaching Up! Setting Goals that are Realistic, Functional, and Meaningful
Many people are inspired by the start of the new year to set goals for themselves. This is also an ideal time for parents to think about their goals for their children. In setting goals for a child with a disability, there are a few important considerations that will improve the likelihood of the child’s success, as well as the parent’s satisfaction.
It’s usually a good idea to start with big picture goals, and then narrow them down. You might start by asking yourself what your ultimate goal for your child is, and then where you would like to see him or her in 5 years. Then, what would you like to be accomplished in this coming year?
Let’s say your big picture goal is for your son to have a happy social life. Your 5-year goal might then be for him to have at least 3 friends that he sees on a regular basis. Your goal for this year might be to get him involved in an afterschool club on a regular basis.
To take another example, your big picture goal might be for your daughter to communicate effectively with other people. Your 5-year goal might be for her to have conversational exchanges with other people in the absence of prompts or augmentative communication. And your goal for this year might be for her to ask for what she wants when she wants it (to “mand” for desired objects).
Starting with the big picture goal and thinking about the 5-year goal can help parents to maintain their focus. If you start with small goals and build up, you might find yourself building in the wrong direction. Most importantly, keeping the big picture and 5-year goals in mind help to keep your more immediate goals functional and meaningful. When time and resources are precious, you want to make sure that you use them only to address goals that are going to help your child to attain his or her best, most important possible outcomes.
A second consideration in setting year-long goals is how realistic they are. No one knows your child better than you, as his or her parent, but even parents can have difficulty gauging just where their child may wind up after a year. Many factors can impact the success of any goal, including the interventions available and other, unexpected barriers or supports that may arise. It can be helpful to break year-long goals down even further into smaller steps, which will be easier to predict and monitor.
So, for the son who you want to see be more social, consider breaking the goal of joining an afterschool club down into its parts, each of which will be easier and faster for him to accomplish than the whole: investigate the clubs that are available, discuss his top two choices with a guidance counselor, attend the first meeting, etc. Each of these smaller goals can be measured and celebrated, helping to keep momentum and motivation towards the bigger year-long and further aspirations. Similarly, the daughter who is working on communication can achieve smaller goals by learning to mand using prompts as earlier goals, and then continuing to mand independently as prompts are faded.
Finally, each of the smaller goals set for the year should be measured so that progress can be tracked. Seeing progress is not only motivating and exciting, but can help to guide when to advance to the next set of goals. Measurement is also important for identifying when progress is not happening as quickly as desired, so that the supports and strategies in place can be updated for better success.
About The Author
Dana Reinecke is a doctoral level Board-Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA-D) and a New York State Licensed Behavior Analyst (LBA). Dana is a Core Faculty member and Associate Program Director in the Applied Behavior Analysis department at Capella University. She is also co-owner of SupervisorABA, an online platform for BACB supervision curriculum and documentation. Dana provides training and consultation to school districts, private schools, agencies, and families for individuals with disabilities. She has presented original research and workshops on the treatment of autism and applications of ABA at regional, national, and international conferences. She has published her research in peer-reviewed journals, written chapters in published books, and co-edited books on ABA and autism. Current areas of research include use of technology to support students with and without disabilities and online teaching strategies for effective college and graduate education. Dana is a past Board President of the New York State Association for Behavior Analysis (2018-2019).